Pediatric and Neonatal Mechanical Ventilation became instantly popular with pediatric residents in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) due to its small size and simple and practice-oriented approach. Recently, more advances have come up in the field of mechanical ventilation including newer modes such as airway pressure release ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). In the second edition, newer chapters on specific scenarios of Ventilation in Asthma, ARDS, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), Patient ventilator synchrony have been added. Flow charts have also been included in most of the chapters for ready reference. Some newer ventilators and their information have also been added in chapter on commonly available ventilators. This book will continue to be of practical use to the residents and fellows in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit.